Class
A class is simply a structure of data. It's used to accompany values and associated methods.

Basics

Defining and using a struct is easy and expressive. Let's define a struct of a person with their name, age and email.
struct Person {
name = "";
age = 0;
email = "";
}
What you might notice is that there is no need to specify a type, it is required to specify a default value and from that the type is inferred. Now it's possible to create an instance of this class by calling it like a function.
// Creates an empty Person with the default values
john := Person()
A struct is type safe and it's values can never be null. By default the values are set to their most basic variant.
john.name // evaluates to an empty string ""
john.age // evaluates to a zero 0
john.email // evaluates to an empty string ""

Constructors

This feature is currently unimplemented
It's also possible to specify values to "construct" a class with. We're using the "Person" struct from the last few examples.
// Notice the curly braces initializing the values
jane := Person({ name: "Jane", age: 52, email: "[email protected]" })
// It's also possible to initialize some values (no age, so that will be 0 by default)
jane := Person({ name: "Jane", email: "[email protected]" })
Besides this you can also specify a constructor method in your struct if you prefer different default values, or to do logic on inputs.
class Person {
name = "";
age = 0;
email = "";
// Parameterless constructor
// Allows the above constructing to work with curly braces
constructor() {
if self.name == "Jane" {
print("Hi Jane!")
} else {
print("Hey unknown!")
}
}
}
// Notice that curly braces are still allowed
// This also prints "Hi Jane!"
jane := Person({ name: "Jane", email: "[email protected]" });
If you create a constructor with parameters, it's no longer possible to pass a hashmap as argument to initialize the struct. You then have to follow the constructors parameters.
class Person {
name = "";
age = 0;
email = "";
// Parameter constructor
// Doesn't allow constructing with a hashmap
constructor(string name) {
self.name = name;
self.age = 30;
self.email = "[email protected]"
}
}
// Notice there are no curly brackets
jane := Person("Jane")

Methods

This feature is currently unimplemented
While we just mentioned the first called method in a struct (the constructor). You can define your own methods to call on your structs. We're again using the "Person" struct, however now without a constructor. Methods can take parameters and also return values just like functions.

Without Parameters

The simplest type of methods are the ones without parameters, let's start with a simple greet method that greets the person.
class Person {
name = "";
age = 0;
email = "";
// Define a new method named greet without any parameters
greet() {
print("Hello " + self.name + "!")
}
}
To call this method you first need to instantiate a new variant of the struct and then call it on that.
// New instance of Person with the name "Sam"
sam := Person({ name: "Sam" })
// Prints "Hello Sam!"
sam.greet();
Besides this simple method you can also do something more advanced, like modifying it's values, performing logic and returning values. Like if someone ages up check if they're at the retirement age of 65 and return true or false depending on if they are at that age.
class Person {
name = "";
age = 0;
email = "";
// Define a new method named ageUp
ageUp() {
// Increases the age
self.age += 1;
// Check if the age is higher than or equals to 65
if self.age >= 65 {
// If the age equals 65, congratulate them with their retirement
if self.age == 65 {
print("Congratulations on your retirement, " + self.name + "!")
}
// Return that they are indeed at the retirement age
return true
}
// Return that they are not at the retirement age
return false
}
}
ash := Person({ name: "Ash", age: 63 });
// Ages Ash up to 64, retired will equal to false
retired := ash.ageUp();
// Ages Ash up to 65, retired will equal to true
// And "Congratulations on your retirement, Ash!" will be printed
retired := ash.ageUp();
// Ages Ash up to 66, retired will equal to true
// Nothing will be printed
retired := ash.ageUp();
// ashAge will equal to 66
ashAge := ash.age

With Parameters

Methods without or with parameters act just the same, the only difference (just like in function) is that you can give additional data to the method making it reusable. Let's add a method to the Person struct that changes their name.
class Person {
name = "";
age = 0;
email = "";
// Define a new method named greet without any parameters
setName(name) {
self.name = name;
}
}
You might think to yourself why you want to make a method for this instead of straight up assigning to "person.name". We get back to this in Access Modifiers.

Access Modifiers

This feature is currently unimplemented
Structs allow a range of access modifiers to control what in your code can access the contents of a struct.
  • public: Can be accessed anywhere in your code
  • private: Can only be accessed by methods in your struct
  • internal: Can only be accessed by the same package as your struct is defined in
To define a property's acess modifier you can put the keyword (see above) before your property.
struct Person {
// Explicitely designated as public
public name: String,
// Explicitely designated as private
private age: Integer,
// Implicitely designated as public
email: String,
}
It's also possible to set access modifiers for properties based on their getter and setter.
struct Person {
// Explicitely designated public getter and a private setter
// This allows only class methods to set the name, but you can get the name
// from anywhere
name: String { public get; private set; },
}
alex := Person({ name: "Alex" });
// Prints "Alex"
println(alex.name)
// Throws a compiler error as property "name" has a private setter
alex.name = "Chris"
And finally you can also specify access modifiers on your methods, for example to only make a method available inside of your struct.
struct Person {
name: String;
age: Integer;
// Define a private method to check if a person is at the retirement age
private checkIfRetired() {
if self.age >= 65 {
return true
}
return false
}
// Define a public method to age a person up and returns if the person is retired
public ageUp() {
self.age += 1;
return self.checkIfRetired();
}
}
Last modified 2mo ago
Copy link
Edit on GitLab